Categories For Guidance and Assistance



As Maragaret Mead emphasized, ‘Children must be taught how to think, not what to think.’ making childhood the foundation of life.



Someone who is ready for the zombie apocalypse but not ready for the math test tomorrow, is a dilemma faced by every teen.



The child in an adult officially resigns from adulthood. Decisions will be made using the eenie-meeni-minie-moe method and arguments will be settled by sticking out their tongue.



Old-age is like the finest wine in the collection as it has been tested & triumphed through time, showing us the importance of elders in our life.



As Jasmine Guy said, ‘There is no sexuality that is greater or lesser than another.’ making every individual unique in their own preferences.



As Mahatma Gandhi said 'Hate the sin, not the sinner’, is the first step towards reform and change.


The structural theory of mind (Pleasure, Reality and Morality principles)

The journey of human beings began with a struggle for basic survival in the landscapes, jungles, caves, etc., to the current scenario of a better quality of life, age of machines, and artificial intelligence. Since the human race has evolved beyond the survival instinct in the current era, the reality and morality principles are the elements of power play. Despite the elements of power play, the basic instinct has the foundational basis in its court. Sigmund Freud explained these elements as “the way the human mind works or the human psyche/personality aspects.” The concepts of Id, Ego, and Superego can be understood in their active form as elucidated below:-

  • “Id” – pleasure principle
  • “Ego” – realistic or practical principle
  • “Superego”– morality principle

The first to develop is the “Id”; it works as a primary process for survival and is functional mainly at unconscious levels of an individual’s mind. It fuels the urge for immediate need gratification and avoids pain which can create issues later in life. Further, it doesn’t get impacted by the trouble it causes to self or others in the process of immediate gratification of its needs.

As an individual steps forward in the life cycle, they develop a sense of self, practicality, and realities of life. “Ego” is vital as it mediates between the “Id” and the “Superego.” It defines the individual’s view about themselves and plays the role of self-preservation, intellectual and defensive functioning. Moreover, it operates predominantly on conscious levels except for ego defense mechanisms.

The last stage to develop is “Superego” that evolves based on the learning, experiences, and needs from the “Id” and “Ego” instinct. Hence, it is the moral compass based on values, principles, and the conscience that acts as a guiding light. Moreover, the projective aspects of the conscience can be seen in cognition, behavior as criticism, prohibition, guilt arousing statements, etc.

These instincts play an important role in the way an individual responds or reacts to internal and external stimuli. Thus being aware, understanding the nature of these instincts and the act of balancing them is mastery or skill that is required for optimal level of functioning on varied levels.

The feeling of chill down the spine at the touch of a loved one, the feeling of being wrapped In the arm of a loved one, the first kiss or a passionate kiss, holding hands, cuddled together in a blanket phrase evoke an emotional response in the mind and body of an individual. Many people would associate these phrases with their individual or desires experiences, memories of love.

The journey of the emotion of love has a mystery of chemistry as its trademark that has been unraveled with research in time. It’s also the most dynamic emotion that has been the element of change, conflict, or commitment throughout time. The cycle of falling in the ocean of love, enjoying the depth of it, and rising together from the depth to the surface to face the realities of life is a roller coaster ride.

Dopamine, Oxytocin, and Vasopressin (Debiec, 2007) are the neuromodulators that act as a facilitator for the feelings associated to the emotion of love. The Crazy, Euphoric in love phase is heightened as the serotonin guards are lowered in the first year of being in love. After this phase, the serotonin levels gradually return to normal and the honeymoon phase is over.

There is an increase in the oxytocin hormone, a neurotransmitter associated with a calmer, more mature form of love; wherein the couple lands on the testing grounds with showers of realities of life. Oxytocin helps cement bonds raise immune function if you pass the reality test. Love has the component of attraction, lust, and attachment that changes over time with health benefits and there is the scope of living happily ever after.

Romantic or marital love is different from other forms of love due to the elements of sexual intercourse and procreation. Thus this specific element can be a strong bonding or breaking factor in the relationship. Dopamine is the primary pleasure neurotransmitter of the brain’s reward circuitry, which plays an important role in both sexual arousal and romantic feelings.

As Carl Jung said, “the meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances: If there is any reaction both are transformed”. The interplay of these neuromodulators with experiences over time changes the way an individual responds to the emotion of love in the journey of life.

Societal dynamics influence the law of the land and perhaps the most important impact of such kind can be seen through the transition in legal provisions brought about regarding homosexuality

In this world full of pride parades, rainbow-themed parties and picnics, colorful identities, a law criminalizing homosexuality seems like a different planet. However, in India, same-sex relations were not legal until 2018, when a landmark judgment removed homosexuality from section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. The historic judgment made a massive impact on the LGBTQ+ community, which was widely celebrated. Section 377 is identified as Unnatural sex offence as per IPC, that is any individual engaging in intercourse with a man, woman or animal that is against the order of nature. Any adult engaging in consenting sexual relations would also be punished subject to this law. Hence, this reformation in the law was much needed. 

The judgment’s impact elucidates with what Jasmine Guy said “No sexuality is greater or lesser than another”, highlighting the importance of accepting one’s sexuality, sexual orientation. The freedom to love whoever an individual wants as per their orientation is a basic right that all should enjoy. Hence, any step towards the path that brings us all together, free to be who we are and love who we are, is a remarkable as well as joyous step. The positive steps help create hope for a better tomorrow in which we accept, celebrate individual differences and work together.

As humans, the relationship we form with others plays a crucial role in our lives. The kind of relationship we share is vital to our emotional and psychological well-being. Even a conversation with your loved one energizes you instantly. Each of our relationships generates different emotions and responses, which help us to grow and learn about ourselves. Positive and healthy relationships act as medicine in difficult situations in life.

But relationships are difficult to maintain because of two different individuals involved. In the process of maintaining relationships, acceptance acts as a key component. Starting from the family members to relatives, friends and neighbours, differences are bound to occur, resulting in conflicts. Managing conflicts requires commitment and understanding from both the concerned individuals. There are various ways to manage conflicts-

  1. Open communication – Communicating in the right way by expressing one’s ideas and thoughts helps in resolving conflicts. The differences in thought process and belief system leads to arguments and difference of opinion. But genuine expression of feelings and emotions and acknowledging the intentions behind a conflict helps to resolve and manage it in a better way. 
  2. Find some middle ground- A relationship without conflicts and disagreements is possibly idealistic. Finding a middle ground for the differences is one of the essential ways to manage conflicts. Respecting each other’s opinions and individual choices and not compromising with one’s individuality helps to consistently maintain a middle ground for conflicts between individuals. 
  3. Hone your listening skills- Effective listening is required for better communication. Developing your listening skills and paying attention to the details of the content enhances a better understanding between the individuals and improves the quality of the relationship. Conflicts can be managed by mutually respecting each other’s ideologies. 

Infantile Sexuality

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the father of the psychoanalytic school, who developed psychoanalysis theories and techniques. He is known for coming up with concepts of infantile sexuality, libido, psychosexual stages, the structure of mind that were always in the spotlight. Freud focused on five psychosexual stages that individuals go through to develop an adult personality. According to him, children have sexual urges, from which adult sexuality only gradually emerges via psychosexual development. 

He gave the concept of infantile sexuality in his theory which focused on the erogenous zones during childhood. Infantile sexuality recognized sexual stimuli that involve specific body areas and phases of development through five stages, i.e., oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. An individual seeks pleasure independently of a biological function from these erogenous zones.

In the oral stage, which begins at birth up to 1 year, an infant seeks sexual gratification from sucking at a mother’s breast that satisfies their urge.  The child is toilet trained during the anal stage, from 1-3 years; hence, the focus shifts from sucking to excretion. In the phallic stage, which lasts from 3 to 6 years, children learn differences between the sexes. Boys experience the Oedipus complex in which they are attracted to their mothers and fear castration anxiety from fathers. Girls develop the Electra complex where they are attracted to their fathers and have penis envy. Infants enjoy repeating the same pleasurable sensual experience they have discovered and so continue doing it for themselves.

Each stage of development requires resolving conflicts, leading to either build growth or suppress development. Sexual development during childhood contributes significantly to adult personalities, and any suppression or fixation at a stage can lead to maladaptive and pathological behaviors. Therefore, it is essential to acknowledge the significance of sexual development, same as any other aspect, be it physical, emotional, or social development of an individual.

Object relations theory grew out of the psychodynamic approach. British psychologists Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Harry Guntrip, and Scott Stuart extended object relations theory during the 1940s and 1950s.

Object Relations Theory

According to the theory, an individual’s childhood experiences moulds how they relate to others and their environment. The images of people and events from childhood form ‘objects’ in the unconscious. The ‘objects’ which we carry with us influence our social relationships and interactions. It states that the self and personality develop only in relation to something else and not in isolation. This theory holds value to date because our personality is shaped not in a vacuum but by our childhood experiences, relationships we develop, and social interactions.

Objects are significant others to whom the individual relates, often the mother or primary caregiver. The key emphasis is on the infant’s relationship with the mother determining their personality later in life. These mental representations of early relations influence the growth and personality of the child.

An example: ‘my mother feeds me when I am hungry, so she is good’ (object), ‘she takes care of me means I am good’ (self in relation to the object), and ‘I love my mother’  (the relation).

The relevance of this theory can be seen in the absence of primary caregivers, especially the mother, during the initial years can create disturbed personality, anxiety, strained relationships in the child’s future years. If the care is adequate (as viewed by the child), children can form their true or best selves.